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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

Citing sources according to APA guidelines

7th edition

Welcome to the APA manual

Every academic work builds on a variety of sources. If you are writing a paper, essay or thesis as part of your university education, you too are expected to support your argument with insights and research results from the scholarly literature.

Quoting directly, paraphrasing, summarizing 

There are three different ways to incorporate information from sources into your writing:

  • quoting directly from the source, by reproducing the author's exact words,
  • paraphrasing, by rewriting a passage in your own words;
  • summarizing, by briefly restating the author's main ideas.

Whatever technique you use, you should always cite your sources. By doing so, you give the authors the credit they deserve, and allow the reader to verify the accuracy of your claims. If you fail to cite your sources, or do so carelessly, you are guilty of plagiarism.

Citing in APA Style

There are many different ways to cite sources using different citation styles. A citation style common in the social and behavioral sciences is APA Style, established by the American Psychological Association (APA). In APA, a source must be cited in two places: 

  1. in the body of the text where a brief in-text citation is inserted;
  2. in the reference list at the end of the document where more complete information for the source is provided.

About the manual

This APA manual, aimed at Tilburg University students, covers key citation guidelines from the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), the APA's offical style guide. Among other things, the manual contains information about:

  • in-text citations,
  • direct quotations (text, but also figures and tables),
  • the reference list. Section 3 covers the rules for formatting and ordering references, while section 4 contains 135+ examples of the most common references, each with the accompanying in-text citations.

The APA guidelines do not only refer to source citation, but also to writing style, formatting, and the structure of your document. Refer to Section 5 for instructions and a sample student paper .