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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

2. Direct quotations

When to use direct quotations

As a general rule, paraphrasing (rewording a passage) and summarizing are the best techniques to incorporate information from other sources in your work. Direct quotations (word-for-word extracts from a source).should be used sparingly, because the paper or thesis you are writing is supposed to be your original work. 

Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing:

  • when reproducing a definition;
  • when you want to respond to exact wording;
  • when the author has expressed something so aptly or memorably that a paraphrase would detract from it.

Page number(s) or other locator required

When quoting directly, you must provide – in addition to author and publication year – a specific locator (such as a page number) that directs the reader to the specific location of the quoted text.

Works with page numbers

For works with page numbers, use "p." (e.g., p. 321) to indicate a single page; use "pp." (e.g., pp. 145–146) if the passage appears on two pages. Separate page numbers with an en dash (–).

Works without page numbers

For works without page numbers, such as web pages, some e-books, and (audio)visual works, direct the reader to the quoted text using a different locator. What locators you can use is discussed in Subsection 2.3: Textual works without page numbers and Subsection 2.4: (Audio)visual works.