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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

1.7 Personal communications

What is personal communication?

Works that cannot be accessed by readers are cited only in the text as personal communications; they are not included in the reference list. Personal communications include private letters, text messages, memos, online chats or direct messages, emails, (telephone) conversations, personal interviews (i.e., not conducted in the context of research), unrecorded webinars or classroom lectures, and so on. 

Sources accessible only to a limited audience

Works that are only accessible to your specific reader group (and not to the general public) should not be treated as personal communication. Consider, for example, a PowerPoint presentation or a recorded lecture posted on a digital learning environment (such as Canvas). 

How to cite personal communication

When citing personal communication, provide initials and surname (in that order) of the person in question, followed by the words “personal communication” and the exact date (month/day/year):

  • Parenthetical citation
    The results will be available by late-2022 (K. M. Kendall, personal communication, January 26, 2022).
  • Narrative citation
    According to K. M. Kendall (personal communication, January 26, 2022), the results will be available by late-2022.