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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

4. Reference examples by source type

This section contains examples of the most common references. More reference examples can be found in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020). The TiU Library holds several copies of this official style guide.

Refer to Section 3 for information on:

  • formatting of the reference list;
  • the order of references in the reference list;
  • the DOI;
  • the different elements of references (author, date, title, source);
  • what to do when reference information is missing, and more.

Formatting of DOIs and URLs in references

  • Copy and paste the DOI or URL directly from your browser to avoid typo’s.
  • If your work is to be published or read online, links should be live. We assume you will submit your writing assignment digitally. Therefore, all DOIs and URLs in the sample references are active. In a word-processing program, preferably use the standard for links (blue font, underlined).
  • Do not add a period after the DOI or URL; this may inactivate the DOI or URL.
  • Do not add a line break to the hyperlink (DOI or URL); this may inactivate the link. It is acceptable if Word automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line.
  • When DOIs or URLs are long or complex, shortDOIs or shortened URLs may be used.
    • The shortDOI service provided by the International DOI Foundation allows you to create shortDOIs.
    • Some websites provide their own shortened URLs, and independent URL shortening services (such as TinyURL or Bitly) are available as well.

    Any shortened URL is acceptable as long as it leads to the required location.

Please note The sample references in this section have single line spacing to save space. Double-space your references, as well as the text of your paper.