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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

2.1 Short and long direct quotations

Short and long direct quotations are formatted differently.

Short direct quotations (fewer than 40 words)

Include a quotation of fewer than 40 words in continuous text and use double quotation marks, and provide a citation. How you cite the source depends on the sentence construction.

  • Parenthetical citation
    If the work you are citing from is not mentioned in the sentence that introduces the quotation, include the author’s name in a parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation along with the year and the page number.
    Earlier results indicated that within the 14-day postpartum period, “infants can identify and later recognize characteristics unique to the caretaker” (Mitchell & Bartlet, 2020, p. 251).
  • Narrative citation
    If the work you are citing from is mentioned in the introductory sentence, provide only the page number in parentheses after the quotation. If the quotation appears on two pages, provide the page range (use an en dash to separate the page numbers).
    Lindgren (2016) defines stereotypes as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one’s social group uses in characterizing members of another group” (pp. 161–162).

Long direct quotations (40 or more words)

Format a quotation of 40 words or more as a block quotation, indented 0.5 inch from the left. This is how it is done (in Word):

  1. Highlight the quotation with your cursor.
  2. Right click.
  3. Select Paragraph.
  4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

End the sentence in which you introduce the quotation (the ntroductory sentence) with a colon. Place the final period after the last sentence of the direct quotation, not after the citation.

  • Parenthetical citation
    When using a parenthetical citation, do not mention the source in the introductory sentence. After the citation, provide the author, publication year, and page number in parentheses.

    Global warming presents us with a fundamental problem:
    It menaces our planet and looms over our future like a Colossus (see Figure 1 from Goya). It is particularly pernicious because it involves so many activities of daily life, affects the entire planet, does so for decades and even centuries, and most of all, because none of us acting individually can do anything to slow the changes. (Grandin & Windrup, 2018, p. 441)

  • Narrative citation
    When using a narrative citation, you mention the source in the introductory sentence. After the quotation, provide only the page number in parentheses.

    Herd and Kim-Spoon (2021) define ER as follows:
    The internal and external processes involved in modifying the experience or expression of an emotion (Thompson 1994). In contrast, emotion dysregulation occurs when strategies employed to manage emotions are unsuccessful in the long-term, or successful in the short-term but with consequences for long-term well-being. (p. 142)

    Citations embedded in the quotation are included (but do not appear in the reference list).