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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

4.12 ChatGPT and other AI tools

Artificial intelligence (AI) is no longer just a research topic; it is increasingly being used in practice. The most obvious example is ChatGPT, the immensely popular chatbot launched in 2022 by the AI company OpenAI. You can have conversations with the chatbot that look exactly like conversations between humans.

AI tools like ChatGPT are called 'Large language models,' or LLMs. Examples of other LLMs are Copilot and Google Bard. Large language models are trained on huge datasets containing billions of words from various sources, such as websites, books and articles. This extensive training enables LLMs to 'understand' the nuances of language, grammar, and context. 

In the reference list

OpenAI. (2024). ChatGPT (Feb 17 version) [Large language model].

  • Begin the reference with the name of the author: OpenAI (the company behind ChatGPT).
  • Provide the publication year of the version you used. For this you need the version number - see the next bullet.
  • List the name of the language model as the title (in italics). Then, provide in parentheses the version you used (copy ChatGPT's designation). Click the question mark in the lower right corner of the ChatGPT website, then select 'Release notes' to view the version.
  • After the title, include a form-specific description in square brackets.
  • Normally, the publishing organization is included after the title. In this example, however, the author and publishing organization are identical. To avoid repetition, omit the publishing organization's name. 
  • End the reference with the URL Do not provide the entire URL because ChatGPT's response to your prompt is unique and is not accessible to the reader.
  • Do not include a period after the URL. 

In the text

Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2024) 

Narrative citation: OpenAI (2024)

  • How to incorporate ChatGPT-generated content into your text is explained in Subsection 1.12