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Citing sources according to APA guidelines

APA Style @ TiU

1.2 Multiple works

  • Parenthetical citation
    Arrange the citations alphabetically and separate them using semicolons. Note that an ampersand (&) is used to join the authors’ names.
    Recent research (Pearson et al., 2022; Van Hoof & Lewis, 2021; Wu, 2019) focuses on pre-adolescent children.
  • Narrative citation
    Place the citations in any order. Use “and” (not “&”) to join the authors’ names. Use "and" to join the authors’ names.
    For example:
    Pearson et al. (2022), Van Hoof and Lewis (2021), and Wu (2019) focus on pre-adolescent children.

Include the initials of both authors in every in-text citation. 

  • Parenthetical citation
    Arrange the citations chronologically and separate them with semicolons.
    Other studies (A. Smith, 2018; M. J. Smith, 2022) also find these correlations.
  • Narrative citation
    Place the citations in any order. 
    M. J. Smith (2022) and A. Smith (2018) also find these correlations.
    A. Smith (2018) and M. J. Smith (2022) also find these correlations.

Cite the author(s) one time, then provide the publication years (separated by commas). List the citations chronologically, according to earliest publication date. List works with an unknown publication year first, using the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”). Works that are in press (i.e., not yet published) are listed last.

  • Parenthetical citation
    Three major genetic groups can be identified worldwide (Weisbach & Johansen, n.d., 2018, 2019, 2020, in press).
  • Narrative citation
    Weisbach and Johansen (n.d., 2018, 2019, 2020, in press) identified three major genetic groups worldwide.
     In the reference list, the works are listed alphabetically by title, excluding “A,” “An,” and “The.”

Identify works with identical author(s) and year by including a lowercase letter after the year: a, b, c, and so forth. Assign the letters alphabetically by title to the works. Exclude the words “A,” “An,” and "The."

  • Parenthetical citation
    Stress can adversely affect our immunity (Singh & de Groot, 2020a, 2020b; 2020c).
  • Narrative citation
    Singh and de Groot (2020a, 2020b; 2020c) state that stress can adversely affect our immunity.
    In the reference list, the year-letter combination is used as well.